In this day and age a term we hear more and more is "collectable".  What is

a collectable?  It can be almost anything; that is, anything that a human being

decides he or she wishes to accumulate for some form of personal pleasure.  A

collectable can be as large as an automobile or as small as a button, or even,

believe it or not, a piece of barbed wire!


     You can't have collectables, however, without one important adjunct, the

"collector"!   A collector can be almost anyone from a small child to a famous

personality or multi-millionaire.  All collectors have one thing in common, an

almost overwhelming desire to acquire their own personally chosen collectable.

At this point a distinction should be made between a "true collector" and the

"speculator" or "hoarder".  The true collector collects things because of the

personal enjoyment he gets from his hobby.  He also generally enjoys sharing his

collection with others and loves to discuss his hobby with anyone he can.  The

hoarder or speculator, on the other hand, collects only in the hope of monetary

gain, or in the case of some hoarders, the selfish act of pure possession.


     Collectables indeed come in all shapes and sizes.  Most people are aware of

the common collectables such as stamps and coins and even automobiles, but few

really know the vast number of diverse items which people collect.  Only a visit

to a large collectables show can give one an insight into the vastness of the

collectable scene.


      In the past decade or so many people have become interested in "coin

operated devices" as collectables and the number of "coin-op" collectors is

growing.  Coin machines also come in all shapes and sizes, from small counter

top vending and game devices to large mechanical orchestra machines.  Almost all

varieties of coin-ops are collected by someone or other.




     Probably the most widely collected coin operated device is the 'slot

machine'.  This category includes the familiar "one armed bandit" type machine

(referred to by most collectors as 'bell machines') and the Turn of the Century

"upright" or "color wheel" machine.


     Not too many years ago even owning such a machine was a crime in almost

every state, although this did not stop the avid collectors who were forced to

operate "under cover" to carry out their fascinating hobby.  Then, spurred on by

a police confiscation of some rare machines being restored by a Los Angeles area

collector, a move was taken to amend the California Penal Code to allow

collectors to own "antique" slot machines.  After considerable work by

"friendly" legislators, greatly aided by California slot collectors, this

finally came to pass and after 1978 the owning by collectors of slot machines

manufactured prior to 1941 became legal, provided of course, that they were not

used for gambling.


     This began the era of antique slot machine legislation.  With California as

an example, one by one other states started to pass similar legislation as local

legislators were prodded by their slot collectors.  Some states followed

California's "pre 1941" definition of "antique slot machines".  Others used a

more realistic definition of "25 years or older".  Today, approximately ten

years after California was "made legal", 28 states allow collecting of antique

slot machines, four have "unclear laws" regarding them, three allow only "trade

stimulators" (more about these shortly), and only 15 states still ban them, but

their number will probably decrease in the future.




     Somewhat akin to the slot machine is the so called "trade stimulator".

These are counter top games, often almost identical to a slot machine, with one

important difference, they do not automatically dispense cash prizes when a

player "wins".  These games come in many forms and were generally used by small

merchants to promote sales or attract customers (hence the name "trade



     A person would use a coin to operate the machine with the knowledge that if

he did not 'win' he would still receive some item of merchandise (often a gum

ball) worth the value of that coin.  On the other hand, if he 'won' the merchant

would give him some item or items of merchandise of a greater value.  A common

type of trade stimulator was in the form of a small "wheel of fortune".  These

were often used in cigar stores.  The player would spin the wheel (usually by

inserting a coin) and when it stopped it would indicate the number of cigars he

would receive, more often one but occasionally more.  This helped the cigar

store's business as many people would buy a cigar (by playing the game) hoping

to win additional ones.


     Because of the wide variety of these games, and their often novel game

ideas, these machines are highly collectable and have many avid collectors.




     Certainly one of the very popular coin-op collectables these days is the

Jukebox.  These once familiar items seem to be slowly fading from the American

scene.  The "golden age" of the Jukebox (at least as far as esthetics is

concerned) was the late Thirties and Forties.  During this period extensive use

was made of brightly colored plastics and lighting employing changing colors.

Many Jukebox cabinet designs of that period were truly "works of art".


     Of all the various brands of Jukeboxes Wurlitzer seems to be the most

collectable.  This is probably due to the innovative cabinet designs (of wood

and plastic) of that company's chief designer during the "golden age", Mr. Paul

Fuller.  During the period from 1941 through 1950 he designed more than half a

dozen models most of which have become real "classics."   One of his impressive

designs was the model 850, known as the "Peacock" because it had a large colored

lighted panel portraying that bird.


     Probably the most collectable Jukebox is the Wurlitzer model 1015, also

designed by Mr. Fuller.  This machine is the Jukebox that is very likely

familiar to the average person as it is used today in many television

commercials, movies, and even depicted on TV cartoon shows.  If a person wanted

to buy just one classic Jukebox this is the one he would probably buy, provided

he could afford its whopping price tag.  It is characterized by its rounded top,

revolving "color wheels" and "bubble tubes."  A Jukebox collection is really not

considered complete without a Wurlitzer 1015.


     Even though Wurlitzers from the "golden age" appear to be the most

collectable Jukeboxes, those from other manufacturers and time periods are also

sought by many collectors.  During the golden age other manufacturers, such as

Seeburg and Rockola also made some quite attractive models.  The Rockola

1422/1426 series is in fact probably the second most familiar 78 RPM Jukebox to

the average person due to its appearances in TV shows and motion pictures.  Some

collectors like the models of the early Thirties which were the "pioneer"

Jukeboxes.  Other collectors enjoy the early 45 RPM machines made in the Fifties

and Sixties.


         Here again Wurlitzer probably leads the "collectability list" because

of its innovative and attractive designs, but Seeburg is not far behind.  It

should finally be noted that collecting Jukeboxes not only appeals

aesthetically, but has the added excitement of being able to listen to music

with the same sound it had to people of its time.




     The forerunners of the Jukebox were the various forms of coin operated

mechanical musical instruments.  The earliest of these were large music boxes

made around the Turn of the Century and fitted with a coin mechanism to allow

people to hear music by the insertion of a coin.  Next came coin operated

"player pianos" which were similar to the popular home models except they were

powered by electric motors (instead of foot power, as in the case of most home

players), and the user could not change the music roll which determined what

song would be played.  Generally, these machines used music rolls, each

containing 10 tunes, with the next tune in sequence being played each time a

coin was inserted.


     Collectors of these machines have come to refer to them as "nickelodeons."

This term was not used for these devices during their heyday, however, they were

simply called "coin pianos."  The term "nickelodeon" was used in those days to

refer to a silent movie theater which charged a nickle admission.  The use of

that term to refer to coin operated pianos originated with the lyrics of a

popular song of the Fifties, "Music, Music, Music."  The term has also been used

in the past as a nickname for the Jukebox.  Incidentally, two of the famous

Jukebox manufacturers, J.P. Seeburg, and Rudolph Wurlitzer, got their starts,

around the Turn of the Century, manufacturing coin operated pianos.


     A larger 'cousin' of the "nickelodeon" was the so called "orchestrion." 

These were basically coin operated machines containing a piano and several other

additional mechanized instruments such as pipes (some producing violin or flute

sounds), xylophones, drums, cymbals, and other "percussion" devices.  These

machines were often used in dance halls in the early 1900's in lieu of an

orchestra.  Today they are quite valuable collectors items demanding high prices

for most models in reasonable condition.


     In addition the these piano based instruments, coin-op versions of other

musical instruments were produced in the early part of this century.  Two of the

most noteworthy were the "Violono Virtuoso", a coin operated automatic violin

player produced by the Mills Novelty Co., and the "Encore Automatic Banjo" by

the American Automusic Co.  All in all, coin operated musical instruments come

in many varieties and have an avid core of collectors.




     Another class of coin machine collectables are the types of coin-ops

referred to as "arcade machines."   These machines were made strictly to provide

entertainment and amusement and were found in the "penny arcades" which

flourished from around the Turn of the Century until recent times, although the

"video arcade" of today is actually a modernized version of this type of



     Arcade machines can generally be divided into three major classes, "fortune

tellers", "peep shows", and "games."  the former class includes machines which

give your "horoscope", tell your "fortune", or supposedly tell a person

something about his or her "personality."  Probably the most familiar of these

types of machines is the "granny fortune teller" which consists of a large

cabinet, the upper half of which contains a replica of the head and upper half

of the body of an old woman ( a "fortune teller").  When a coin is inserted a

printed card is dispensed containing your fortune.  This is often accompanied by

a mechanized movement of the mechanical woman's arms.


     Also included in this first class are the "personality meters" and "love

testers."   When a coin is inserted in one of these small machines a lighted

panel on the front of the machine will indicate your "personality type" ("shy",

"vivacious", etc) or your "love rating" ("romeo", "clod", etc) usually in quite

comical terms.  Somewhat akin to these machines are the "strength testers" in

which, after the deposit of a coin, a person squeezes some handle grips as hard

as he can and a dial registers his "strength rating."


      "Peep shows" were machines, especially popular in the early 1900's, which,

for the depositing of a coin, allowed a person to view either a very short

motion picture or a still view.  The pictures were usually billed as being

somewhat "racy" but mostly this was a "come on" and what the person actually saw

was usually quite mild.


     The "game type" arcade machines usually simulated a popular sport or had a

gun shooting theme.  "Baseball" machines were quite popular and generally

resembled a "pinball machine" except that in many models each ball was "pitched"

(usually released onto the playfield via a "ramp" from underneath) and "batted"

by a mechanical bat controlled by the player pressing a button.  Most Of these

machines had "animation units" which simulated players running the bases.  Other

sports simulated by arcade machines included football, basketball, and hockey.


     Other popular game type arcade machines allowed the player to simulate

shooting some type of a gun.  The "rifle gallery" machines, popular since the

late 1940's, allowed a player to simulate shooting a rifle at "targets" behind a

glass, thus emulating the popular carnival shooting galleries.  Similar machines

using pistols were also made.  There were also many games made where the player

shot down aircraft with a "machine gun" (especially popular during World War II)

and also "submarine" and other similar games with war themes.





           Of the myriad of types of coin operated vending machines which have

appeared over the years, only one general type appears to have caught on with

collectors.  These are the machines that dispensed chewing gum or peanuts.  Most

of the collectable machines of this type were manufactured between 1910 and

1950, with the 1920's accounting for many of the popular models.


     These machines came in a variety of shapes and configurations.  What seem

to be the most collectable are those that dispensed ball gum or peanuts.  Most,

if not all, of the machines of this type had containers for the merchandise

which allowed viewing, either using a glass "globe" (often of a rather

attractive shape) or a square glass sided compartment.  Other collectable gum

venders, such as the popular "Chicklets" machines, dispensed wrapped sticks of



     While some collectors may collect other types of vending machines, the gum

and peanut machines certainly seem to be the most widely collected.





           Another type of coin machine which is collected with enthusiasm by

many these days is the pinball machine.  Most people are familiar with these

games as they have been around for over 50 years, and many may wonder how anyone

can collect something that large.  This, however, does not seem to bother the

pinball collector. Many people today also collect automatic musical instruments

and pianos are larger than pinballs!


           Pingames over the years have come in many sizes and technical

complexities.  Some collectors prefer the early machines (made in the early

Thirties) which were strictly mechanical, some very simple and others with

extremely clever mechanisms.


           The introduction of electricity to pinball came in 1934 when young

designer Harry Williams used dry cell batteries to power a simple electric ball

kicker in a game called CONTACT.  Within the next several years the use of

electricity (first from batteries, then "house current") in pinball increased.

By 1941 pinballs had brightly lighted backboards, lighted bumpers on the

playfield, and had evolved into one of the technical wonders of the day using

advanced electro-mechanical techniques.


           World War II severely curtailed pinball production, but when it ended

manufacturers resumed where they had left off.  Then, late in 1947, came a

startling new innovation.  The "flipper", a player controlled bat-like device

which could alter the course of the ball being played, was introduced by D.

Gottlieb and Co. on a game called HUMPTY DUMPTY.  Within 3 or 4 months all new

pinball games had flippers.  A little over a year later "pop bumpers" (bumpers

which could forcibly repel a ball when it struck them) were added, making an

exciting action game out of pinball.  This led to the fascinating colorful games

of the 1950's (pinball's "golden age").  Many collectors today seek these

flipper games of the golden age, yet others prefer the earlier flipperless



           Pinballs in the Sixties and Seventies became more modern in

appearance, but many games, especially those from the early Sixties, had

fascinating and challenging play features which make those machines highly

desirable to many collectors.  In the later part of the Seventies pinball

started going "solid state" - using computer circuitry in place of the

traditional electro-mechanical components.  While many collectors today believe

that only electro-mechanical games are collectable, a few are starting to add

some outstanding electronic machines to their collections.  As electro-

mechanicals become harder to get, and solid-state games become older, I am sure

that collectors will start looking for electronic pins to add to their





           What about the new kid on the coin-op block, the video game?  Have

people started collecting these relatively new machines?  I am sure there are a

few people who have either started collecting videos, or have added one or two

to their collections of other coin-op devices.  I believe, however, that more

and more people will start collecting these machines as time goes on.  Examples

of videos which I consider collectors items at the present time would be such

games as PONG (the first commercially successful coin-op video game), SPACE

INVADERS (the game that started the first "video craze"), ASTEROIDS, and of

course PAC-MAN. 


           PAC-MAN is especially significant as not only did it spawn a family

of games (MS. PAC-MAN, BABY PAC-MAN, etc), but it also gave the world "PAC-MAN

fever".  PAC-MAN products sprung up all over, including such diverse items as a

breakfast cereal and a room deodorizer.  A multitude of such products abounded,

and they themselves represent a class of collectable, although not coin-



           We have now briefly discussed each of the major  classes of coin-

operated devices which are being collected today.  Most collectors specialize in

one type of device, but often a collector may have one or more items of another

kind in his collection.  A future article will deal with the "support system"

which aids coin-op collectors.  This includes such things as books, magazines,

shows and auctions, dealers, organizations, etc.  Additional articles will

describe the collecting of a given class of coin-op collectables in detail.  As

you can plainly see, the field of collecting coin-operated devices is extremely

varied and there is some type of coin-op device to appeal to almost anybody.