By Russ Jensen


     As I have done a couple of times in the past, I thought I'd

describe another of the early pingames in my personal collection.

This time, however, in addition to describing the game, Bally's

VARIETY, I thought I would give some historical background on

pingames which share this game's chief playing feature, the

"number (or letter) Sequence."


     "Sequence games", as I shall call them, all have one

characteristic in common.  Each of these games require the player

to light a sequence of numbers, or in some cases letters, on the

backglass.  In a few cases the numbers must also be lit in

numerical order (first '1', then '2', etc) but in most of these

games this rather difficult task is not required.


     In some games the entire sequence must be lit before any

'scoring advantage' is obtained, while in others, various

sections of the sequence (such as 1-5, 5-10, etc) will enable

lesser advantages.  The "sequence game" was especially popular in

the later 1930's and early 1940's, but as you will see, sequences

were used in pingame design in later years as well.




     The earliest pingame employing a sequence of numbers that I

could discover in perusing the advertisements from the coin

machine trade publication Automatic Age was Bally's AIRWAY of

1937.  It had ten numbers on the backglass which were lit by ten

bumpers on the playfield, each corresponding to an airplane

pictured there.  From the ad I could not determine the scoring

significance of these numbers, and I presently know of no one

owning this game, but it was possibly the earliest pingame

employing a sequence of numbers.


     About six months after AIRWAY, around March of 1938, Bally

came out with their famous RESERVE.  This game was the first of

another class of pingames which are generically referred to as

"reserve games."  In "reserve" games half of the coins deposited

were saved in a special "reserve" (or 'jackpot') compartment in

the machine and the amount contained in this jackpot was

indicated by a projected number on the backglass.  The game had

twelve numbered bumpers which when hit would light the numbers 1

thru 12 on the backglass.  If a player succeeded in lighting all

twelve numbers, a rather difficult task, he would receive the

"reserve" jackpot and a new one would be started.  All "reserve"

type games followed this general idea; a 'jackpot' which

increased until it was won, and a number sequence (or some

equally difficult task) to be completed in order to win it.


     In September of 1938 Exhibit Supply introduced a game called

REVIEW.  That game had a sailing theme and had 15 numbered flags

on the backglass, each corresponding to a numbered bumper on the

playfield.  Lighting flags '1' thru '5' resulted in a "small

award" of replays, '1' thru '10' a larger award, and if all

fifteen flags were lit the largest award ("the Big Bank Nite

Award" as it was called) was made.  The number of replays for

each of these awards was adjustable by the operator.  From the

advertising for this game it appears that there was no other form

of scoring, which was fairly unusual for pingames of this period.


     Then, in March of 1939, Bally came out with SPOTTEM, the

direct forebearer of VARIETY, the featured game in this article.

SPOTTEM had twelve numbered bumpers, a 'score build up' feature,

and an 'out-ball return' (see the detailed description of VARIETY

later in this article).  The name SPOTTEM referred to a feature

of the game in which 'free' numbers were lit ('spotted') by the

machine after the coin was inserted, another feature later to be

found on VARIETY.


      Other similar games by Bally were PICK-EM, in which the

player could select a 'free' number by means of a knob on the

front of the cabinet, and VOGUE with a 15 number sequence and two

'spotted' numbers at the start of each game.  Both of these

Ballygames were issued around August of 1939


      Starting in May of 1939 Gottlieb also began a series of

'number sequence' games which had sort of a 'bingo card' motif.

The first of these games was LOT-O-SMOKE which had 13 numbered

bumpers, each corresponding to a popular brand of cigarettes of

the time.  The backglass had four groups of eight numbers each,

each containing a different set of the thirteen 'cigarette

packs'. Obviously lighting all of the eight numbers in any one or

more of these groups would award replays.  At this same time

Gottlieb introduced a similar game called LOT-O-FUN.  This game

also had 13 numbered bumpers, but instead of cigarettes it had

four 'cards' on the glass, each containing 10 of the 13 numbers

(1-10, 2-11, 3-12, and 4-13).  It can easily be seen that

lighting the numbers 4 through 10 was necessary to have a chance

of lighting all the numbers on any of the four cards.


      In October of 1939 Gottlieb came out with KEEN-A-BALL.

This game had 10 numbered bumpers and two cards on the backglass,

one containing the numbers 1 through 7, and the other 4 through

10.  In addition to this 'number sequence' this game had a very

interesting feature.  The player, as in many other sequence

games, could also win replays by scoring points, but this game

went one step further.  Your point score would be accumulated for

three games in a row and you could win replays by making 30

points in the three games combined, as well as for making 12

points in the first game.  This was a feature that I don't think

was used by any other pingame producer.


     In December of 1939 Gottlieb released two number sequence

games.  LITE-O-CARD, which was similar to KEEN-A-BALL but had

thirteen numbers and four backglass cards of 10 numbers each, and

bowling alley with ten numbered bumpers which lighted bowling

pins on the backglass.


     In that same month Exhibit Supply came out with CONQUEST

which had an interesting feature in connection with its number

sequence scoring scheme.  CONQUEST had 11 numbered bumpers with

corresponding numbers on the backglass.  When a player hit a

numbered bumper that bumper's light would go out and the same

number on the backglass would light.  If a player succeeded in

hitting all eleven bumpers, the bumpers would relight and each

time any of these was struck after that it would award one




     Another interesting feature of CONQUEST was its "Lost

Horizon" feature.  A number showing in a window on the backglass

(called the "Lost Horizon window") would indicate the number of

games played on the machine in a row without the scoring of any

replays.  When this number reached 30 (ie 30 non replay scoring

games had been played) all bumpers would automatically light and

award a replay when struck during that game, a reward for player

persistence I guess.


     The feature of CONQUEST, in which all bumpers would award

replays once a number sequence was completed, was used on other

'sequence games' of the period.  For example, Stoner's DAVY

JONES, also appearing in 1939, had a sequence of numbers which

when completed caused all bumpers to award replays.


     Genco's METRO of 1940, described by me in a past COIN SLOT

article, had only five numbered bumpers which, after all five had

been lit, would each score a replay.  Now completing a sequence

of only five numbers may appear to be easy compared to ten or

more numbers, however, there was one 'catch'.  The five bumpers

had to be lit "in rotation" (ie number '1' first, then '2' next,

etc), a much more difficult feat.  This "rotation sequence" idea

was found on a few games but was never very popular due to its



     By the way, just as a piece of 'pinball trivia', a

rotational sequence of numbers, with the additional 'catch' that

if any target (in this case) was hit out of sequence the sequence

would have to be started all over again, was used in the

fictional pingame Koala's COSMIC VENUS.  For those of you

unfamiliar with that little game, it was the machine played in

the epic pinball contest between the teenage girl wizard "Tilt"

and her opponent "the whale" in the ill fated Brooke Shields film



     Another Bally 'sequence' game was TRIUMPH released in March

of 1940.  That game had a 15 number sequence and rather

attractive "Art Deco" artwork on the playfield and backglass.  It

also had a unique feature which Bally called the "buy back"

feature.  If a player had shot his 5 allotted balls and still had

not completed the sequence, he could 'buy' additional balls at

five cents each, which was of course the price of the original 5

ball game.


     During the period from late 1940 through 1941 Gottlieb, as

well as most of the pingame manufacturers, continued to produce

games using number sequences.  Among the Gottlieb games were GOLD

STAR and PARADISE, both with two 6 number sequences; BELLE HOP

with an 8 number sequence; HOROSCOPE with a 14 number sequence;

and NEW CHAMP and TEXAS MUSTANG, each with 15 number sequences.

Also, late in 1941, they released FIVE & TEN, which had 'letter'

rather than 'number' sequences.  This game had bumpers with the

letters of the words Five, Ten, and Twenty on them, with the 'E'

in Five and the 'T' in Ten being part of the word Twenty.  The

player, by lighting any or all of those three words, would

presumably be awarded some game 'advantage', probably replays.

Anyway, by the start of World War II number sequences pingames

were almost everywhere!




     Now for our featured game, Bally's VARIETY, which was

released around June of 1939 and is certainly a typical 'number

sequence' pingame of the period.  I personally feel a special

affection for VARIETY as not only is it now in my personal

collection, but it is identical to one of the first two pingames

I ever owned when I was about twelve years old.


     VARIETY has 12 numbered bumpers of the 'spiral spring' type

plus two additional smaller unnumbered bumpers at the bottom of

the playfield.  Bumper #7 is near the center of the playfield and

has an added special significance which will be discussed

shortly. The artwork on both the backglass and playfield is of a

striking "Art Deco" design making VARIETY an Art Deco pingame




     When a new game is started the 12 numbered bumpers are all

lit, the lights being contained in the circular plastic 'posts'

which make up the center of each bumper.  When a lit bumper is

struck by a ball its light goes out and the corresponding number

on the backglass is lit.  The object of the game (the only way to

win replays) is to light all twelve numbers on the backglass, a

feat I might ad, which is very difficult to accomplish.


     The game has two additional features which can aid a player

in accomplishing his goal.  First, is the so-called "spottem"

feature, first introduced by Bally on SPOTTEM as previously

mentioned.  Every so often, upon the deposit of a coin, the

player receives two 'free' numbers which are lit ("spotted") by

the machine at the start of a game.  These number pairs on

VARIETY are 4,10 and 5,6.  The 4,10 pair is especially nice since

these bumpers are both normally hard to hit being somewhat well

'guarded' by playfield obstructions.


     The second special feature is the "extra ball" feature.  Any

time during play if a ball hits bumper #7, one ball (if there are

any) from the out-hole at the bottom of the playfield is returned

to be played again.  This means it is possible for the player to

have more than the usual 5 balls (in fact there is no limit if

the player is extremely skillful) to use to try to light the 12

numbers.  Needless to say, however, it is fairly difficult to hit

the #7 bumper.


     As I said earlier, whenever a lit bumper is hit its light

goes out.  Any ball hitting an unlit bumper, including the two

small unnumbered bumpers near the bottom of the playfield, causes

a 'point' to be added to a tally projected in a circular area

near the bottom of the backglass.  These 'points' are actually

'potential replays' which can be collected only if the player

succeeds in lighting all 12 numbers on the backglass, and this,

as I said earlier, is a very difficult task.


     If however the player does light all twelve numbers things

begin to happen!  First, a beautifully colored 'rainbow' lights

up on the backglass signifying the player has "beaten the

machine" and can now collect his "pot of gold", replays in this

case.  At this point the 'points' indicated in the lower

projector window on the backglass begin to count down and, as

each point is subtracted, a replay is added to a replay projector

showing in another circular window near the center of the

backglass.  This 'payoff' process is indeed striking, what with

the glowing 'rainbow' accompanied by the 'clack', 'clack',

'clack' of the two projector units "doing their thing."


     As you can see from the above description, VARIETY is indeed

an interesting example of the many "sequence games" which were so

popular before World War II, only a few of which have been

mentioned in this article.  We shall now describe the continued

use of the "sequence" in pingames during the war, and into the

period following the war.




     During the war, as most of you should know, there were no

new pingames made due to a wartime ban on the production of "non-

essential" items.  During that period, however, many pre-war

machines were 'converted' into 'new' machines using the old parts

with new artwork (backglasses, and sometimes new playfields).

Most of these "wartime conversions" used the features of the

games they were converted from (primarily Exhibit, Gottlieb, and

Bally) most of which used number sequences, so "sequence games"

were very prevalent during the war.


"Spell Name" GAMES


     One variation of the "sequence game", which started

appearing after the war, was the so-called "Spell Name" feature.

This feature was found on both amusement pins and the "one-ball

horserace" gambling type machines as well.  In games with this

feature the player would try to light the letters in the name of

the game on the backglass, either by hitting lettered bumpers or

by some other means.


     On "one-balls" the next letter was usually lit by the player

performing some fairly difficult feat during one play of the

game. The lighted letters were then "held-over" for subsequent

games until the player succeeded in lighting all the letters in

the name, at which time he would generally receive a large award

of replays (or coins if it was a direct payout machine).


     The "Spell Name" feature in amusement pinballs was somewhat

different.  In these games the player generally tried to light up

the entire name in one game, the letters being 'reset' at the

start of each new game.  This was generally done by hitting

bumpers which indicated the appropriate letters on their caps.


     Starting in 1947, United came out with a series of games

which had a "Spell Name" feature.  Most of these games had six or

nine letter names which were broken down into 3 groups of two or

three letters each.  Examples were: HA-VA-NA, HA-WA-II, NE-VA-DA,

SIN-GAP-ORE, MAN-HAT-TAN, and TRO-PIC-ANA.  These games had

bumpers corresponding to each letter in their names.  As the

bumpers were hit their lights would go out, but it wasn't until

all letters in any one group (of two or three letters) were made

that the corresponding part of the name on the backglass would

light.  In addition to the bumpers, these games had 'rollover

channels' which would light a group of two or three letters at

once.  Completing each group enabled some scoring feature of the

game, and completing the entire name gave the player a much

greater additional advantage, such as doubling the game's "bonus"

scoring feature.


     Other "Spell Name" games were also produced in the late

forties.  On many of these machines completing the entire name

would award the player one or more replays.




     As was mentioned earlier, some "one-balls" had Spell Name

features which were "held-over"  from game to game.  Other

sequence features on some games also employed the "hold-over"

idea.  Many post-war "one-balls" had what was known as the "A-B-

C-D" feature in which four bumpers, labeled 'A', 'B', 'C', and

'D', appeared on the playfield.  The player would have to hit

them 'in rotation' (ie 'A' first, then 'B', etc) in order to

light them, but once lit they would remain lit until all four had

been lighted.  Completing this sequence would give the player

some special 'advantage' during the next game he played, such as

lighting all of the "Horse Selections".


     An example of a pingame using a "hold-over" sequence feature

many years after the "one-ball era" was Gottlieb's TROPIC ISLE in

1962.  This game had a backglass with 'light animation' of three

monkeys climbing coconut trees.  During play of a game it was

possible to cause the monkeys to climb higher, one step at a

time. The monkey's position was not 'reset' at the beginning of a

new game until he finally reached the top of the tree, at which

time "Specials" on the playfield were lit.  While this was not

exactly a "number" sequence it was a "sequential event" and an

example of a "hold-over" feature on a later model pingame.


     The main purpose of these "hold-over" features was to keep

players playing the game, trying to finally achieve this goal.

These features would also attract new players to play the game

since they would realize that part of the task had already been

performed for them by previous players of the machine.  So indeed

these were generally excellent "come-on" features used by pingame

designers to stimulate play.




     The use of number sequences on pingames continued into the

fifties.  Games employing the idea in that era often used

numbered kickout holes, rollovers, and other 'targets', as well

as bumpers, on the playfield to light the sequence numbers on the

backglass.  A typical example of such a game was Williams' SHOO

SHOO from 1951 which resides in my personal collection.


      SHOO SHOO had a ten number sequence on the backglass.

These numbers were lighted by numbered kickout holes, rollovers,

and bumpers on the playfield.  If a player succeeded in lighting

'1' through '5' certain playfield rollovers would light as

'Specials'. If, however, the player succeeded in lighting all ten

numbers an 'Extra Special' kickout hole in the center of the

playfield would light.  This hole would award from one to ten

replays, as displayed by lighted numbers next to the hole.  These

numbers could be advanced by other playfield achievements, a sort

of 'mini sequence' feature which was a "hold-over" feature as





     Early in 1960, Bally, who had primarily been making the

gambling type "bingo pinballs" during most of the fifties, came

out with a series of unique pingames which employed 'number

sequences' as a major game objective.  Like the "bingos", these

machines had no flippers, but in all other respects resembled an

amusement pinball.  With one exception, BEAUTY CONTEST, the names

of all these games contained the word "queens", and for this

reason I refer to them as the "Queens Games".  The other games in




     All of these games had number sequences (11 numbers), each

number being represented by a picture of a beautiful girl on the

backglass.  These numbers were lit by hitting bumpers, etc, on

the playfield.  Lighting various amounts of these 'girls' (it was

how many numbers, not which ones that counted) would result in

different amounts of replays being awarded to the skillful

player. Some of these games allowed the player only 1 ball and

others two or five.


     As an interesting sidelight to the "Queens Games", they used

many internal parts that also had been used on Bally "bingo"

machines.  I have heard it rumored that one of the reasons Bally

came out with these games was to enable them to legally ship

"bingo" parts, since the Korpran Decision in 1957 had declared

"bingo pinballs" to be gambling devices subject to the Johnson

Act.  Whether or not this is true I can not say, but at any rate,

the Bally "Queens Games" were an interesting addition to the

parade of "sequence pingames" over the years.


     In 1966, several years after Bally resumed production of

flipper pinballs, they came out with a flipperless machine in the

"Queens Game" tradition.  This game was called FUN CRUISE and

Bally's brochure for it stated "by popular demand!   Old

favorite, 'lights out' scoring."  This game had 15 numbered flags

on the backglass which could be made by hitting bumpers, targets,

or a "mystery spotting" kickout hole.  In addition to the numbers

it also had the standard point scoring typical of the flipper

games of the period.


       The game gave the player only 3 balls.   The ad further

boasted of the game having no flippers by stating "no

flippers....restoring the happy arts of nudging, tapping, and

body English....speedy action of 3 sling-shot activated balls

which deliver twice the excitement, suspense and satisfaction of

5 'flipper flapped' balls."  And, a few months later, Bally

introduced a similar machine called DELUXE FUN CRUISE with many

of the same features, plus a "mystery spotting" thumper bumper.

So even in the mid-sixties pinball players could still play a

real old-fashioned "number sequence" flipperless pingames.




     Many flipper games of the sixties utilized forms of the

"sequence" in their play.  An example of another sequence was a

"playing card sequence" such as was used on Gottlieb's KING OF

DIAMONDS in 1967.  This game had a sequence of 13 representing

the playing cards '2' through '10' and 'Jack' through 'Ace'.

These 'cards' were made by rollovers and targets on the

playfield.  In addition, there was a "roto-target" unit in the

center of the playfield containing thirteen targets '2' through

'Ace' which could be hit by skillful flipper shots.


     On the backglass was an elongated window behind which was a

bank of thirteen 'drop flags' displaying which of the thirteen

'cards' had been made.  If a player succeeded in getting all the

cards from '2' through '10' special lights, which alternated from

one side of the playfield to the other, would be lit on two

rollovers on the playfield.  If the player was skillful enough to

get all thirteen cards ('2' through 'Ace') a 'rotating Special'

was enabled.  The targets 'Jack' through 'Ace' would each light

in rotation as Specials awarding replays when the lit target was



     That was just one example of "sequences" used on pingames

from the sixties.  As you can see, number, letter, and other

"sequences" have been an important part of pingame design since

the advent of electric pingames in the mid 1930's.  This idea was

found on a majority of the games in the late 30's and throughout

the 40's, and still continued, in one form or another, in later

pingames as well.